How to Set Up a Raspberry Pi Development Server

Starting with a fresh install of Raspian:

sudo apt update

sudo apt upgrade

sudo apt install apache2

sudo apt install php

sudo apt install mysql-server php-mysql (mariadb-10.0)

sudo apt-get install certbot python-certbot-apache
sudo certbot --apache

Next, you just set up your MariaDB database and install WordPress.

cd /var/www/html

sudo rm *

sudo wget http://wordpress.org/latest.tar.gz

sudo tar xzf latest.tar.gz

sudo mv wordpress/* .

sudo rm -rf wordpress latest.tar.gz

Give Apache access to the WordPress folders and files:

sudo chown -R www-data: .

Set up MySQL/MariaDB:

sudo mysql_secure_installation

You will be asked to Enter current password for root (enter for none): Since we’re only setting this server up for testing and development purposes on a local network, I’ll go ahead and enter my root password. In a production environment, you’ll definitely want a strong DB password, different than the root password.

Next, you’ll see something like, you've alredy set a root password, so there's no need to update it (but you can still update it here if you like) press enter.

Remove anonymous users : y

Disallow root login remotely : y

Remove test database and access to it : y

Reload privilege tables now : y

You should see: All done! Thanks for using MariaDB!

Create a WordPress Database

sudo mysql -uroot -p then enter your root password (or DB password if you set it up differently in the mysql_secure_installation command.)

Next you’ll see the Maria DB shell. Your prompt will look like MariaDB [(none)]>. Create a new database named wordpress

create database wordpress;

Mind the semicolon- it’s required.

If this was successful, you’ll see Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

No you can grant DB privileges to root. Replace PASSWORDGOESHERE with your password.

GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON wordpress.* TO 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'PASSWORDGOESHERE';

FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

Exit with CTRL + D

Come up with a name for your dev server

I’ll be using deadpool3.com as my example.

Note: At the time of this writing, I own deadpool3.com, but you can use literally any URL you want. You don’t have to own it. (I think google.com may be an exception. They’ve got some fancy code going on and I wasn’t able to get my /etc/hosts to cooperate in my testing.) More on that in a sec.

Configure static IP address

Next, set your static IP address. You can do this by editing one file. Open it by typing sudo nano /etc/dhcpcd.conf

Inside the file (I made a comment above these lines, so I know what I typed if I open this file again later) add the following lines:

#Matt's static IP configuration:
interface wlan0
static ip_address=192.168.1.111/24
static ip6_address=fd51:42f8:caae:d92e::ff/64
static routers=192.168.1.1
static domain_name_servers=192.168.1.1 8.8.8.8 fd51:42f8:caae:d92e::1

So in my case, I made my static IP address 192.168.1.111. Double check your router and network settings for an acceptable range of IP addresses to choose from.

Configure /etc/hosts file on your laptop

Note: You’ll have to edit the /etc/hosts file for every computer on your local network that you’ll be accessing your dev server from. In most home network dev server setups, this will just be a single computer.

Drop the following line at the very bottom of the file ON YOUR LAPTOP or DESKTOP and be sure to replace the IP address with the static IP you just configured in the previous step:

sudo nano /etc/hosts

## Raspberry Pi Server Address ##
192.168.1.111 deadpool3.com

WordPress Configuration

You can either leave your keyboard/mouse/monitor plugged into your pi, and go to localhost in a browser, or grab a different computer on your local network and go to the domain name you set up in /etc/hosts. In my case, it’s deadpool3.com. You should see the WordPress setup screen like this:

  • Choose your language
  • Click Let’s go!

Fill out your DB information:

Database Name:      wordpress
User Name:          root
Password:           <YOUR PASSWORD>
Database Host:      localhost
Table Prefix:       wp_

Click ‘Submit’ and ‘Run the install’.

Once you’re finished, drop into Settings > Permalinks. Select ‘Post name’ and hit ‘Save Changes’

Configure SSL Encryption

sudo apt install openssl

Create a root key that will be able to generate ssl certs. You can do this by running: mkdir ~/SSLcerts && cd SSLcerts and then openssl genrsa -des3 -out rootCA.key 2048

Create a root certificate by running openssl req -x509 -new -nodes -key rootCA.key -sha256 -days 1024 -out rootCA.pem

Now you’ll need to trust your root CA on every machine you’ll be accessing the server with. To do this, you’ll need to copy the rootCA.pem file to your SSL trusted certs directory on every machine on your local network.

sudo scp [email protected]:/home/pi/SSLcerts/rootCA.pem /etc/ssl/certs

Next, create an OpenSSL configuration file for us to use with our server. sudo nano ~/SSLcerts/deadpool3.com.csr.cnf and paste the following into that file, and save.

[req]
default_bits = 2048
prompt = no
default_md = sha256
distinguished_name = dn

[dn]
C=US
ST=RandomState
L=RandomCity
O=RandomOrganization
OU=RandomOrganizationUnit
[email protected]
CN = deadpool3.com

Next, create a file called v3.ext and paste some more code into it. This will allow us to create a public certificate file.

sudo nano ~/SSLcerts/v3.ext and pasted the following:

authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid,issuer
basicConstraints=CA:FALSE
keyUsage = digitalSignature, nonRepudiation, keyEncipherment, dataEncipherment
subjectAltName = @alt_names

[alt_names]
DNS.1 = deadpool3.com

Next, we’ll use the configuration options we pasted into deadpool3.csr.cnf to create a key file for deadpool3.com. To do this, type: openssl req -new -sha256 -nodes -out deadpool3.com.csr -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout deadpool3.com.key -config <( cat deadpool3.csr.cnf )

Next we need a domain certificate:

openssl x509 -req -in deadpool3.com.csr -CA rootCA.pem -CAkey rootCA.key -CAcreateserial -out deadpool3.com.crt -days 500 -sha256 -extfile v3.ext

That’s all the files we need to make! Lastly, we need to move the .key and .crt files into a directory where apache2 can access them. In that case, I’m just ging to create a new file in my apache2 root directory like so: sudo mkdir /etc/apache2/ssl

Next, just copy them over. sudo cp ~/SSLcerts/{deadpool3.com.key,deadpool3.crt} /etc/apache2/ssl

And that’s SSL certs generated! Done!

Next, you’ll need to tell Apache where those new SSL keys and certs are. To do this, you’ll need to modify the <VirtualHosts> file. By default, you should have one file named /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default.conf. We’ll use this as a template. sudo cp /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default.conf /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/deadpool3.com.conf

We’ll want to change a few things and add some stuff. At the very top, inside the <VirtualHost> tag, you’ll want to change the port number to 443. Next we’ll add the following to line 2 (above the very first commented out line):

sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/deadpool3.com.conf

No add these lines just below the opening <VirtualHost> tag

#Custom SSL setup
SSLEngine On
SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl/deadpool3.crt
SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache2/ssl/deadpool3.com.key

Next, remove the comment (#) in front of ServerName and replace www.example.com with your server name (in my case, www.deadpool3.com). The remaining defaults should do fine for our purposes.

So at the end, your <VirtualHost> file should look something like this:

<VirtualHost *:443>
	#Custom SSL setup
	SSLEngine On
	SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl/deadpool3.crt
	SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache2/ssl/deadpool3.com.key
	
	
	# The ServerName directive sets the request scheme, hostname, and port that
	# the server uses to identify itself. This is used when creating
	# redirection URLs. In the context of virtual hosts, the ServerName
	# specifies what hostname must appear in the request's Host: header to
	# match this virtual host. For the default virtual host (this file) this
	# value is not decisive as it is used as  last resort to host regardless.
	# However, you must set it for any further virtual host explicitly.
	ServerName www.deadpool3.com

	ServerAdmin [email protected]
	DocumentRoot /var/www/html

	# Available loglevels: trace8, ..., trace1, debug, info, notice, warn,
	# error, crit, alert, emerg.
	# I t is also possible to configure the loglevel for particular
	# modules, e.g.
	#LogLevel info ssl:warn

	ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log
	CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log combined

	# For most configureation files from conf-available/, which are
	# enabled or disabled at a global level, it is possible to
	# include a line for only one particular virtual host. For example the
	# following line enables the CGI configuration for this only
	# after it has been globally disabled with "a2disconf".
	#Include conf-available/serve-cgi-bin.conf
</VirtualHost>

Next, we’ll need to take a look at the master apache2.conf file. sudo nano /etc/apache2/apache2.conf. This is a super well-commented out file, so it should be largely self-explanatory. We’re going to scroll down until we find the <Directory> tag for /var/www/. Make sure that the AllowOverride parameter is set to All. Your <Directory> tag should look something like this:

<Directory /var/www/>
	Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
	AllowOverride All
	Require all granted
</Directory>

sudo a2enmod rewrite

sudo a2enmod ssl

sudo systemctl restart apache2

Other helpful resources

https://www.freecodecamp.org/news/how-to-get-https-working-on-your-local-development-environment-in-5-minutes-7af615770eec/

https://github.com/dakshshah96/local-cert-generator/

Oh wow https://www.selfsignedcertificate.com/

SUPER Apache2 guide: https://www.dedoimedo.com/computers/www.dedoimedo.com-apache-web-server-lm.pdf